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evincent
evincent
Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 3 2008, 11:03 AM EDT | Post edited: Sep 3 2008, 11:03 AM EDT
Considering your reading about religion and culture in Classical China, and especially the document on p. 47 of your text, respond to the following question(s). Be sure to cite specific examples/details whenever possible.

1. Which of the ideas are the most compatible with each other? Explain how and why?
2. Which of them could be called religious? Why?
3. Which philosophers propose ideas that are best suited to people who want to build a strong and unified political order? Do you see evidence of this in the text? In the present day? Explain.
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telvis292
telvis292
1. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 11 2008, 3:07 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 11 2008, 3:07 PM EDT
1. There are six brief passages in the document on page 47. I believe the first, fourth and sixth present a Daoist philosophy and are most compatible with each other. The second, third and fifth seem to present a similar Confucian philosophy. The three I thought of as Daoist seemed to relate to nature or took a passive approach to behavior, for example " I take no action and the people are reformed.." The three passages I feel are confucian describe virtue and goodness and decorum.
2. Daoist philosophy seems to present a more religious view of the world, in the Sacred Books of the East, they describe an "originator of heaven and earth... the mother of all things." The Confucian Book of Analects is more concerned with presenting a code of ethics, or system of behavior. It has ideas such as: propriety, filial piety, virtue, and how these should guide man's actions. Confucianism seems a more secular system of belief than Daoism.
3. Confucianism is the more suited to building a strong central government. In the Confucian Analects document, he describes the nature of an ideal government and rules for propriety which would help maintain order in the country at that time. For example in the Analects he says in response to a question about government, " To govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare not to be correct?". Daoism seems to imply that the ideal government is no government. He says, "... the sage, in the exercise of their government, empties their minds, fills their bellies, weakens their wills, and strengthen their bones.. In the kingdom the multiplication of prohibitive enactments increases the poverty of the people; the more implements to add to their profit that the people have, the greater disorder there is in the state and clan... the more display there is of legislation, the more thieves and robbers there are."

-Ted Dixon
Period 2B
9/11/08
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ebrannan
ebrannan
2. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 11 2008, 5:02 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 11 2008, 5:02 PM EDT
1. Of the six brief passages on page 47 in the textbook all of them are either Confucious or Daoist. Passages one, three, four, and six seem to be all Daoist texts and the most compatible with each other. This is because passages one, three, four and six all profess the art of doing nothing and all will be right with the world. Passage one sums it up with the sentece "I do nothing and the people become rich." The other two passages (two, and five) all seem to be Confucian texts that also fit together. These texts profess the need for social order and for respect and ritual. The passages two, and five are truely summed up by passage five itself, "Personal cultivation begins with poetry, is made ffirm with rules and decorum, and is perfected with music."
2. The only two passages that could be seen as religious on page 47 would be passages three and six. These two passages reflect on human nature and what they are and the cause for such a nature. This is a staple of all religions and belife systems that could be caled religions. Also both of these texts are Daoist which is logical because Daoists were a more philisopical group while confucinists were a group more focused on moral and social ethics of the leaders.
3. Of the two philosophies of Daoism and Confucinism the one that is better suited to the task of building a strong and unified political order would be Confucinism. In the brief passages complied on page 47 it is not aparent that Confusinism would lead to a more unified political order, but I know from earlier reading on the confucinism that it leaves instructions for political leaders more redilty than Daoism, because, " the Master said, " He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the North polar star, which keeps its posision and all other stars turn toward it."
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LaTerrian
3. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 11 2008, 5:32 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 11 2008, 5:32 PM EDT
1. From the documents on pg. 47, documents 1, 4, 6 are compatible because they both seem to follow the Daoist religion. The reason why I find these three compatible is because in each passage, being one with nature, or taking to action is mentioned. The first passage states "I take no action and the people are reformed". That statement alone reflects the Daoist point of view.

2. I believe that Daoism is more religious because Confucianism preaches to take action, make laws, and was more of a government based practice. Daoism, however, preached to become one with nature. Daoism even makes references to heaven and the afterlife, while Confucianism ask "How can you ask about death, before you have found the answer to life".

3. Confucianism is more suited to build a strong central government for obvious reasons. The Confucian idea was built based on the ideas for a strong government. The textbook states "Elements of Confucianism includes a taste for ritual, self control, and polite manners" or being virtuous, which was Confucians whole idea for the perfect government.

LaTerrian McIntosh
A Block
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SteveKB
SteveKB
4. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 12 2008, 2:06 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 12 2008, 2:06 PM EDT
After reading the six documents of the teachings of rival Chinese schools in chapter 2, I've made the assumption that the first five writings are compatible with each other. I made this assumption, because all five of them seem to be teaching people that humans aren’t made pure and that they need to learn to behave properly. For example the third passage states “The nature of man is evil” and that “his goodness is acquired” this links to the second passage since it says that “the inferior man cherishes possessions” which could be considered a desire. The third passage can be connected to the first one since while talking about desires the first writing reads “I have no desires and people return to the good and simple life”. Passages five says that “Personal cultivation begins with poetry” which can finally link itself to passage four which is a poetic description of ways to become a better person. I did not include that last document because it is teaches the exact opposite and instead talks of that people that follow there natural feelings, will do well, which conflicts with passage three’s first sentence.
Practically of the writings not just the few that the other commenters noted included some sort of rule or guideline that describes a way a person should behave in order be good or achieve peace such as passage ones poetically written set of instructions, concluding that they could all be considered religions because of the instructions for a benefiting outcome. In all of these passages a moral is learned that was taught to the people of China to aid China’s struggling society at the time.
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SteveKB
SteveKB
5. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 12 2008, 2:07 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 12 2008, 2:07 PM EDT
The religion best suited for creating a strong and unified political order in my opinion would be Confucianism it would build more order than Daoism since Daoism “posed no real political threat”(which was noted on page 48 on paragraph 2 in the text) to the many emperors of china. Confucianism was more powerful since it did not include teachings of magic and mysteries which many Confucian scholars strongly disagreed with. Even today Confucianism is still powerful enough to survive, also evolving into Neo-Confucianism which can be found on page 266 in the text.

-S Kelly-Bazan.
-Steve K-B XD

it wouldn't let me post over 3000 characters so this is the second piece
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Lauren_Fleck
6. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 12 2008, 3:34 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 12 2008, 3:34 PM EDT
1. Documents one, three, four, and six clearly represent Daoism, and documents two and five represent Confucianism. We can assume, that documents one, three, four, and six represent Daoism because "Daoism embraced traditional Chinese beliefs in nature's harmony and added a sense of nature's mystery", as stated on page 47, in the second paragraph. Documents three, four, and six discuss becoming one with nature. For instance, in document four, it states, "Be at one with the dust of the earth". Document one fits in to the Daoist grouping, not because it discusses nature, but because it states "I take no action and the people are reformed." This coincides with their view against laws. Daoists believed in the freedom of people to make their own, right decisions. This can be proved by exploring the document titled, "Laozi on Living in Harmony with Dao", which says that "the greater the number of laws and enactments, the more thieves and robbers there will be." Documents two and five talk about virtue and how to better a person, which were strictly beliefs of those who practiced Confucianism. We know that Confucianists were strict about laws and behaviors because of the phrase in “Confucius on Good Government”, which states “if they be led by virtue, and uniformity be provided for them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good….”
2. None of the documents on page 47 can be considered religious. The philosophies themselves can hardly be considered religions, regardless of what the documents show us. Both Daoism and Confucianism focus more on how people should behave in order to live happy live, than on divine beings and the after-life. Most of the documents discuss “the nature of man”.

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Lauren_Fleck
7. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 12 2008, 3:35 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 12 2008, 3:35 PM EDT

3. Confucius proposes ideas that “are best suited to build a strong and unified political order”. We do not really see this in the documents on page 47, except that we can clearly see that Daoism is not concerned with such things because of the statement, “I take no action and the people are reformed”. We know that Confucius’ ideas were highly concerned about political order because of the statement in the document titled, “Confucius on Good Government”, which says “the Master said, ‘he who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place, while all the stars turn toward it….’” This shows that government was used to enforce the virtue upon the people of China, so that everyone may leave peacefully, and with righteousness.
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evincent
evincent
8. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 13 2008, 7:24 AM EDT | Post edited: Sep 13 2008, 7:24 AM EDT
This is exactly what I am looking for guys. Keep it up! 5  out of 5 found this valuable. Do you?    

AdamNall
9. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 13 2008, 8:28 AM EDT | Post edited: Sep 13 2008, 8:28 AM EDT
1. There are six paragraphs in the text on page 47. I believe that the first and fourth paragraphs are the most compatible. The first tells us to “take no action” and “the people are reformed.” It says that when we “enjoy peace,” the “people become honest. It says that, basically, if we do not interfere, if we were government leaders, our people would prosper. Paragraph 4 says, “Keep your mouth closed. Guard your senses. Temper your sharpness…” This means essentially the same thing. Don’t interfere. This is what both Confucius and Laozi wanted rulers to understand.
2. The statements that could be considered religious would be paragraphs 3 and 6. Paragraph 3 states “The nature of man is evil; his goodness is acquired. His nature being what it is, man is born, first, with a desire for gain. If this desire is followed, strife will result and courtesy will disappear.” This is basically like the Ten Commandments, which say that greed is a sin; it can be found as a theme in most religions. Paragraph 6 says, “When it is left to follow its natural feelings, human nature will do good. That’s why I say it is good. If it becomes evil, it is not the fault of man’s original capability.” This is sort of dictating that we should follow our heart, which is said in many religions; in most, our religious figure states that his will is in us, and we will be able to distinguish right from wrong.
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AdamNall
10. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 13 2008, 8:28 AM EDT | Post edited: Sep 13 2008, 8:28 AM EDT
3. As for the philosophers that propose ideas suited to people who want to build a strong and unified political order, that would be Confucius and Laozi. They shared the need to tell the Chinese rulers of the time how to govern their people. Paragraphs 1, 2, and 4 all say how a ruler should act. “I take no action and the people are reformed…” tells rulers to not interfere with their subjects’ lives, and their land will be prosperous. “The gentleman cherishes virtue; the inferior man cherishes possessions. The gentleman things of sanctions; the inferior man thinks of personal favors.” This tells us that the rulers wanted to rule as much as they could. It also suggests that rulers would use as many subjects at their disposal as possible to get what they wanted. The philosopher says that a good ruler treats their subjects well. “Keep your mouth closed. Guard your senses. Temper your sharpness…” This tells the rulers to, basically, keep their nose out of other peoples’ business. In this day and age, rulers generally don’t care about that policy. They stick their noses into a lot of peoples’ business. That’s what “spying” is. Also, in several dictatorships, the rulers have only led their people to get what they wanted. And, of course, there is the simple existence of dictatorships. They basically tell all of their subjects how to live, what to do, and take command of the economics of the country. If that isn’t interfering with subjects’ lives, I don’t know what is. 0  out of 1 found this valuable. Do you?    
maggiejoyce
maggiejoyce
11. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 10:33 AM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 10:33 AM EDT
1.In the six short passages in the document found on page 47, passages one, four and six represent Daoism beliefs and passages two, three, and five represent Confucian beliefs. Passages one, four, and six express the idea that people should not meddle in the affairs of the natural order, but instead follow their instincts and the Dao. “I take no action and people are reformed…. When it is left to follow its natural feelings, human nature will do good.” Interference and desire are what cause problems. If desire is followed, strife will result and courtesy will disappear….” In passages two, three, and five, the speakers agree that it is up to the individual to learn and educate themselves in order to become good and virtuous, because if left to our primary instinctive devices humans are (by nature) bad. “The nature of man is evil; his goodness is acquired.”
2. None of the passages could be called religious, or at least not in the sense of discussing gods or unseen supernatural forces. However passage four does have a religious tone. “Be at one with the dust and the Earth.” This command is not a literal, logical one and suggests a mysterious deeper meaning, and maybe a spiritual connection.
3. Confucius and Mencius are the two philosophers whose ideas are best suited to assist people in building a strong and unified political order. Confucian writings taught everyone- especially political leaders- how to exercise the proper behavior in order to achieve harmonious, stable political and social structures. Daoists beliefs would be horrible for political advice because they didn’t even believe in a strong government. We see little evidence of building political order in the text; the passages focus on human nature more than successful tactics for politics. We see Confucian influence in today’s politics in China; the Chinese still stress proper behavior and family values in order to achieve political strength and uniformity.

~Maggie Joyce
~B Block
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C.Mosely
C.Mosely
12. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 11:58 AM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 11:58 AM EDT
1. Looking at the six documents, i found the first, fourth, fifth, and six paragraphs to be Daoist and the second and third to be Confucian. But I also found that the second and third paragraphs from the document are very similar and and compatible to each other, more than you see in any of the other paragraphs from the passage. I think they are more closely related because in the second paragraph, it says, "The gentleman cherishes virtue; the inferior man cherishes possession." With this quote from the passage in mind, i think that it closely relates to the part of the third paragraph which says, "The nature of man is evil; his goodness is acquired." I also noticed a line that spoke about the evil man thinking of personal favors. People who thinkof personal favors and all of their possessions would usually be inquired as characteristics related to an evil man. A man cherishing virtue with sanctions on his mind would be connected to a good man of honor.
While reading and carefully studying the text, i began to notice that in these two paragraphs that i'm speaking of are speaking of virtue and possessions, sanctions and persoanl favors which brings me to the thought of good and bad which all are basically opposites. And from what we've been studying in class, opposites are known as the Chinese symbol that we would like to call Yin-Yang which is the balance between opposites. With all of this in mind, does anybody think that the second and third paragraphs in the document could be Daoist as well and the other four?
2. I think the fourth paragraph could be noted as relgious. When you begin to think of "primal union" thats more of an connection with the heart, mind, and soul which is basically what the Daoist philosophies were trying to get people to do; get in touch with their inner-selves and find "The Way"
3. Confucius' ideas were best for them because he believed a strong gov. was needed for order
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amandabrown101
amandabrown101
13. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 1:14 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 1:14 PM EDT
"1. Looking at the six documents, i found the first, fourth, fifth, and six paragraphs to be Daoist and the second and third to be Confucian. But I also found that the second and third paragraphs from the document are very similar and and compatible to each other, more than you see in any of the other paragraphs from the passage. I think they are more closely related because in the second paragraph, it says, "The gentleman cherishes virtue; the inferior man cherishes possession." With this quote from the passage in mind, i think that it closely relates to the part of the third paragraph which says, "The nature of man is evil; his goodness is acquired." I also noticed a line that spoke about the evil man thinking of personal favors. People who thinkof personal favors and all of their possessions would usually be inquired as characteristics related to an evil man. A man cherishing virtue with sanctions on his mind would be connected to a good man of honor.
While reading and carefully studying the text, i began to notice that in these two paragraphs that i'm speaking of are speaking of virtue and possessions, sanctions and persoanl favors which brings me to the thought of good and bad which all are basically opposites. And from what we've been studying in class, opposites are known as the Chinese symbol that we would like to call Yin-Yang which is the balance between opposites. With all of this in mind, does anybody think that the second and third paragraphs in the document could be Daoist as well and the other four?
2. I think the fourth paragraph could be noted as relgious. When you begin to think of "primal union" thats more of an connection with the heart, mind, and soul which is basically what the Daoist philosophies were trying to get people to do; get in touch with their inner-selves and find "The Way"
3. Confucius' ideas were best for them because he believed a strong gov. was needed for order"
After reading all of the "documents" on pg. 47, I agree that numbers one, four, and six are Daoist, and numbers two, three, and five are Confucist. I believe this is so because the whole Daoism belief is pretty much summarized through the quote "those who speak know nothing". Whereas the Confucist belief system is based on Li, Ren, Shu, Yi, and Xiao. Meaning the main principles of Confucianism are rites, rules, humaness, empathy, righteousness, and filial piety. Along with the principles were the five principle relationships. In document two, this is shown because the gentleman who cherishes virtue is compared to the inferior man who cherishes possessions. I find it interesting that although documents one, four, and six are Daioist, they could possibly be considered as Confucius. I believe this possible because Mencius, a disciple of Confucius, believed that good people would their ways to accomodate to their inherent goodness. In the Daoist documents, they are saying "I take no action and the people are reformed".
Craig (hope i spelled your name right), I can see where you are going with the whole "yin- yang" idea, but then I was looking at the passages, and I think you are right in a sense, but I would still classify the documents as Confuist. I totally agree with your "good vs. bad" theory, and I think that in this case the documents are leaning more toward the Confucist idea of the principle relationship of the social class. But like i said before, its a good theory and a definite possibility.
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eilidhgeddes
14. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 3:22 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 3:22 PM EDT
Out of the six passages on pg. 47, I believe that passage 1,4 and 6 are all Daoist. Passage one talks about taking "no action" in order to achieve a better life. Passage four talks about how you need to simplify your problems and become one with the earth. Passage six talks about how humans will do good things, if they follow their feelings. All of these ideas are essentially Daoist.
I believe that passages two, three, and five are Confucian. Passage two talks about the characteristics of a gentleman. Confucius believed that the ideal government should be made up of Junzi, or gentleman scholars. Passage three explains how human nature is bad and that you need to abstain from following your desire for gain. Passage five talks about decorum which was a major part of of Li.
Out of all these documents, I feel that the passages related to the same belief system are most compatible with each other but that the none of the passage contradict each other except for passages three and six. Passage three talks about how human nature is bad while passage six explains how human nature is good.
The passages related to Daosim are the passages that are more religious. In particular, passage four talks about becoming one with the earth and other religious based ideas such as primal union.
The passages written by Confucian philosophers seem to be the ones best suited to creating strong political order. They emphasize things such as virtue, decorum, and learning which help build a strong government and incite to action as opposed to saying "go with the flow" as some of the Daoist documents seem to be saying.

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nathaniel-rubin
nathaniel-rubin
15. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 3:36 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 3:36 PM EDT
1.I think that documents one, four, and six are compatible with each other because they are Daoist texts, while documents two, three, and five are Confucian texts. Daoism stresses the importance of a ruler’s ‘inaction’ because it leads to a good, healthy natural balance in the universe. The opposites in society will balance out to lead to the natural balance. For example, I could tell document 1 was Daoist because it stressed, “…no action and the people are reformed.” Confucianism emphasizes that the basis of a good government and family starts when one can cultivate their mind and have sincere thoughts. I knew that passage 5, which says, “Personal cultivation begins with poetry is made firm with rules of decorum, and is perfected by music,” immediately was a Confucius document because it stressed personal cultivation, which was the number one aspect of all of Confucianism.
2.The Daoist texts are more religious than the Confucius texts. Daoist texts are concerned about living the life of ‘the way’, where opposites can balance each other out so a person can live and connect with nature. Daoists describe different religious forces as, “Nameless…the origin of Heaven and Earth…The Named…mother of all things.” Confucian texts underline a moral code of ethics in order to have a successful government, such as performing filial piety and maintaining good and healthy relationships with other social class members in society.
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nathaniel-rubin
nathaniel-rubin
16. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 3:37 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 3:37 PM EDT
3.Confucianism offers the best ideas toward governing a large government. One passage, Confucius on Good Government, provides am in-depth analysis of Confucius’ ideal government and answers different questions regarding government. Confucius goes in depth of his view of government, where he says, “The requisites of government…sufficiency of food, military equipment, and the confidence of people in their ruler.” Confucius then lists the requisites of government in order by importance and says that confidence in the ruler is more important than sufficiency of food and military equipment. Confucius questions the practice of execution when he asks, “Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all?” In order to secure submission from the people, Confucius says, “Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, and then the people will submit.”
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sam_moorhead
sam_moorhead
17. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 4:07 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 4:07 PM EDT
1. After reading the text on page 47, I believe that passages 1, 4, and 6 are most compatible because they demonstrate Daoist beliefs, while passages 2, 3, and 5 are most compatible because they demonstrate Confucian beliefs. We know that Daoists believe in stepping back and simplifying life, which is easily seen in each of the Daoist passages. For example, in the first passage the philosipher states, "I have no desires and people return to the good and simple life." This is an excellent example of one of the most important Daoist beliefs. On the other hand, Confucists believe that people are evil from the start and have to better themselves. For example in the third passage it says, "The nature of man is evil; his goodness is acquired." This means that the people had to be strong and make themselves better by living a virtuous life.
2. I don't believe that any of these passages can be called religious. This is not to say that Daoism and Confucianism are not religions, but I find no evidence in the passages to make me believe that they are religious. I do believe that if I had to call some of the passages religious, the Daoist ones would be my choice. Daoist beliefs are more religious in my opinion because they try to get you to simplify life and live in peac.
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CharlesCaras
CharlesCaras
18. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 4:22 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 4:22 PM EDT
1. Passages 1, 4, and 6 appear to be Daoist, while passages 2, 3, and 5 are Confucian. In passage 1 we see statements like "I take no action" and "I do nothing." These are clearly Daoist. In passage 4, we are told to "keep your mouth closed" and "mask your brightness." This reflects the less-is-more concept of Daoism. In passage 6 we see that humans are good by nature and that evil is unnatural. This also represents the non-intervention of Daoism, i.e., there is no need to intervene – people will be good on their own.
Confucianism is seen in passage 2 with the discussion of virtue and sanctions. It is seen in passage 3 with the implied effort of acquiring goodness and the statement that man is born with a "desire for gain." Confucianism is also seen in passage 5 in the discussion of "personal cultivation" and "rules of decorum."

2. None of these passages is particularly religious. However, passages 3 and 6 both speak of human nature, goodness, and evil. Most religions in the world seek to explain these three concepts. The remaining passages speak mostly of behavior.

3. Confucianism proposes ideas best suited to building a strong and unified political order. Confucianism stresses rules (see passage 5 "rules of decorum"), virtue (see passage 2 "The gentleman cherishes virtue"), and sanctions (see passage 2 "The gentleman thinks of sanctions"). This is the opposite of Daoism, which rejects government involvement and leaves it up to individuals to behave correctly on their own.
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KellyD93
KellyD93
19. RE: Teachings of the Rival Chinese Schools
Sep 14 2008, 4:23 PM EDT | Post edited: Sep 14 2008, 4:23 PM EDT
1. In the six passages on page 47, half of them are from Daoism, and the other half is of Confucianism. Passages one, three, and six are from Daoism and the most compatible with each other, because the same message is being sent in each of the passages. In passages one, threee, and six are talking about being one with nature, how nature it the "force", and "enjoy peace and people become honest" (passage one), like letting nature and life take its course. In passage one, the speaker does "nothing and people become rich" or has "no desires and people return to the good and simple life", which exemplifies the nature taking its course value of Daoism. Passage three talks about people's nature "being what it is", again showing the go with the flow belief of Daoism. Passage six states "to follow its natural feelings" and that nature will change, but it is no one's fault. Passages two, four, and five are from the writings of Confucius and Mencius, and are compatible becuase they spread a similar message, but different from Daoism, the message of rules, virtue, and decorum. In passage two, a "gentleman cherishes virtue.... the gentleman thinks of snactions", showing how important virtues were in all classes . Passage four explains how "if this desire is followed, strife will result and courtesy will disappear", so people should "keep your mouth closed.... simplify your problems" and many more, showing the Confucius way of following rules and decorum. Passage five shows and explains how personal cultivation is reached, "begins with poetry, is made firm with rules of decorum, and is perfected by music" showing that success needs rules of decorum.

2.Daoism could be called religious because it explains to peopled to just relax, and that the force, or dao, will help people and is in charge of universal creation.
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